(From Lognet 91/2)


By Stephen L. Rice

I’ve added a new section to those mentioned in the last Lo Cninu Purda (Theme Words, Miscellaneous Words, Reactions, and Problems). Word Families is located between the Theme and Miscellaneous words. Building up such families is a fast, easy, and fairly comprehensive way to expand the lexicon. It also helps learners by giving them a systematically-derived vocabulary and by showing them how word-making works. (For the curious: a number of the concepts in the dupma family are based on similar metaphors in Mandarin Chinese using 'jia'.) [Steve tells me that the Chinese word 'jia' should have a breve over the 'a'. I can't make Pagemaker 3.0 do that! Perhaps someone who knows this software better than I do can tell me how?—JCB] A correction got lost in the mail last time—my fault, not the editor’s: I sent him an old version of the file. I meant to write cnupurtia (or even cnupuatia), because there’s a difference between choosing a new word and simply choosing a word. Purtia should mean 'chooses word...to express...'; all language-users do this. Cnupurtia (or cnupuatia) [The first is preferred because it embeds a pre-existing form, purtia.—JCB], on the other hand, means 'chooses new word...to express...' .

1. Theme Words: Cars

krilykua <kril(u)+y+ku(vg)a = wheel-cover> (2n) is a tire of vehicle... 2-Cpx ’91

frelitla <fre(na)+litla= front-light> (2n) is a headlight of vehicle... 2-Cpx ’91

prilitla <pri(re)+litla = behind-light> (2n) is a taillight of vehicle... 2-Cpx ’91

reklitla <(b)rek(o)+litla = brake-light> (2n) is a brakelight of vehicle... 2-Cpx ’91

tanlitla < t(r)an(a)+litlaƟ = turn-light> (2n) is a turn-signal of vehicle... 2-Cpx ’91

[tca]frecuo <[tca(ro)+]fre(na)+cu(nd)o = [car-]front-window> (2n) is the windshield/windscreen of vehicle... 3-Cpx ’91

tankrani <t(r)an(a)+krani = turn-drive> (3v) turns ...in direction... 2-Cpx ’91

dirtroli <dir(co)+troli = direction-control> (3v) steers ...toward... 2-Cpx ’91 (This isn’t quite the same thing as tankrani.)

dirtolpae <dir(co)+t(r)ol(i)+pa(tc)e = direction-control-apparatus> (2n) is a helm/tiller/steering wheel/directional control of/for... 3-Cpx ’91

dirtolmai <dir(co)+t(r)ol(i)+ma(tc)i = direction-control-machine> (2n) is a steering mechanism/the steering of vessel/vehicle... 3-Cpx ’91

priviapae <pri(re)+vi(zk)a+pa(tc)e = behind-see-apparatus> (2n) is a rear-view mirror of... 3-Cpx ’91

levga < 3/4 E lever, 1/3 C gang gan, 1/2 R vaga, 3/5 F levier> (2n) is a lever of/in... 37% C-Prim ’91

fitlevga <fit(pi)+levga = foot-lever> (2n) is a pedal of... 2-Cpx ’91

rekfitlevga <(b)rek(o)+fit(pi)+levga = brake-foot-lever> (2n) is a brake pedal of... 3-Cpx ’91

kukfitlevga <kuk(ra)+fit(pi)+levga = quick-foot-lever> (2n) is a gas pedal/accelerator of... 3-Cpx ’91

2.Word Family: Dupma (dup) refers to deceit, trickery, and lying. Note the difference between this and falji (fal fai), which refers merely to factual or logical falsity: Falji does not imply deceit.

duptaa <dup(ma)+ta(kn)a = deceive-talk> (4v) lies to...about...by saying... 2-Cpx’91 (This is better than faltaa, which should refer to saying something untrue, whether intentional or not. Unintentional untruths could be specified by tsetaa <tse(ro)+ ta(kn)a = error-talk> (4v) accidentally misinforms ...about...by saying... 2-Cpx ’91)

dupfasli <dup(ma)+fasli = deceive-face> (3n) is a disguise producing appearance...for/to observer... 2-Cpx ’91

dupkao <dup(ma)+ka(kt)o = deceive-act> (4n) is a hypocrite before...about...by doing...2-Cpx ’91 (On a purely religious level, we have dupseo <dup(ma) +se(nt)o = deceive-holy> (3n) is a hypocrite/someone “holier-than-thou” to/before...about/in... 2-Cpx ’91)

dupsadji <dup(ma)+sadji = deceive-wise> (3a) is wilier/more cunning than...about... 2-Cpx ’91

dupkopca <dup(ma)+kopca = deceive-copy> (3n) is a counterfeit/forgery of...made by... 2-Cpx ’91

dupcme[ni] <dup(ma)+cme(ni) = deceive-money> (2n) is an amount of counterfeit money made by... 2-Cpx

dupgei <dup(ma)+ge(ts)i = deceive-get> (4v) cons... out of.../tricks...into giving up...by... 2-Cpx ’91 (This could also be duptoa <dup(ma)+to(kn)a = deceive-take>, with a slight difference in connotation.)

dupraznu <dup(ma)+raznu= deceive-reason> (4n) is a false reason/pretense given by...to...for doing... 2-Cpx ’91

dupmo[rt]o <dup(ma)+mo(rt)o = deceive-dead> (2v) plays dead/feigns death to/before audience/observer... 2-Cpx ’91

dupsoi <dup(ma) + so(nl)i = deceive-sleep> (2v) “plays possum”/feigns sleep before audience/observer... 2-Cpx ’91

dupnamci <dup(ma)+namci = deceive-name> (4n) is an alias of/used by...to...in situation... 2-Cpx ’91 (Not to be confused with srinamci <sri(te)+namci = write(r)-name> (3n) is a pen-name/pseudonym used by writer...for work... 2-Cpx ’91, or, more generally, larmaonamci <lar(te)+ma(dz)o+namci = art-maker-name> (3n) is a pseudonym used by artist...for work... 2-Cpx ’91)

dupherfa <dup(ma)+herfa= deceive-hair> (2n) is a wig of/on... 2-Cpx ’91 (This could be used for false beards, etc. It should not be used for prostheses, for which the “prefix” nurmao- <nu+r+ma(dz)o = made-thing/artifact> suggests itself.)

3. Miscellaneous Words

These are either new words, new or changed affix assignments, or updates to existing words and their usages that have been made in the course of the Eaton Jury work. You will probably want to correct and/or update Appendix B of L1 with them. To understand '4/5E beyond 4/6S allende...' see page 411 ff. of L1.

abrini -> abrrini [A typo.]

adja <Eur. Asia, C ya si ya, J ajiya> 1a is Asiatic, part of an Asiatic language. I-Loan ’91

adje <Eur. Asia, C ya si ya, J ajiya> 1n is an Asiatic place/territory or a place/district inhabited by Asians. I-Loan ’91

adji <Eur. Asia, C ya si ya, J ajiya> 1n is an Asian/-Asiatic person. 1a is Asiatic, of persons. I-Loan ’91

adjo <Eur. Asia, C ya si ya, J ajiya> 1a is Asiatic, part of Asiatic culture. I-Loan ’91

almi <Lin. Allium> 2n is an onion from... S-Loan ’91

banci (ban) -> (-)

bande (ban bae) <4/5E beyond 4/6S allende 2/6F au dela> 4pp is beyond...from...on route/path...by distance... 30% C-Prim ’91

bifci (-) -> (bif)

brona (-) -> (ron)

bucto (buc) <2/3E bush 2/3G Busch 3/5F buisson 4/7S arbusto> 2n is a bush/is brush of... 41% C-Prim ’91

bunbo (bun) -> (bun buo)

catra -e/i/o/u (-) <3/3E otter 2/3G Otter 3/5C shui ta 3/6S nutria 2/4F loutre 2/5R vidra> 2n is an otter of region/range... 58% C-Prim ’91

cetlo (cet) -> (cet ceo)

cteki 4n is a tax on...by...for use... -> 4n is a/the tax on...paid by...to...

cundo (cuo) -> (cun cuo)

danza (daa) -> (daz daa)

disri (dii) -> (dis dii)

donsu 3v gives...gift... (This corrects the order found in MacTeach.)

dralu -a/e/i/o (-) <2/3C lung 3/5F dragon 3/5G Drache 3/6R drakoi 3/6S dragon 2/6E dragon> 2n is a dragon of/from... 43% C-Prim ’90

fanra (fan) -> (far)

fanve (fav) -> (fan)

farfu (fra far) -> (fra)

ferci (fei) -> (fec fei)

fibru (fib) -> (fib fiu)

fizdi1a is physical/non-mental. -> 1n is a physical object/phenomenon, that is, a non-mental and non-social phenomen.

foldi 3v folds...into... -> 2n is a fold in...

fusto (-) 2n is a/the office of... -> (fus) 3n is a/the office of...in building...

galno (Add this note to the E-trat: ‘For precision, one of the modifiers gleco or merko should be used, e.g., gleco galno = ‘occupies an English gallon (80 ounces)’, merko galno = ‘occupies an American gallon (64 ounces)’.’ See kuarti and paintu.

gesko (ges geo) <2/2C ko 3/4E guest 2/4R gost 2/4G Gast 2/6S huesped>3n is a/the guest of...at place... 57% C-Prim ’91

ginru (gin) -> (gin giu)

glopa (-) <4/5R galop 4/5F galop 4/5G Galopp 3/5E gallop 2/5C pao ma> 4v gallops to...from...over course/route... 50% C-Prim’91

grasa (raa) -> (ras raa)

gusto (gus gut) -> (gus gut guo)

hansu (hau) <3/3C han 2/2F su(er) 2/3S sud(ar) 2/4E sweat 2/9H pasina ana> 2n is sweat from... 53% C-Prim ’86

hitli (-) -> (hit)

horno (-) -> (hon)

ketpi (-) -> (kep)

kleni (-) <4/4E clay 2/5R glina 2/5J nendo 2/8C jia no ni 3/10H chikni mitti> 2n is clay from... 43% C-Prim ’86

klogu 1a is closed, as of a door. -> 2n is a continuous loop in path/curve/string/wall... 1a is closed, as of a door/curve/path.

komcu (kom) -> (-)

komfu 3a is more comfortable than...to... -> 2a is comfortable in/about...

kompi (-) -> (kom)

konce (-) <2/3E shell 2/3C ko rh 4/6S concha 2/5H chonga 2/5F coquille 3/8R pakovena> 2n is a/the shell of... 52% C-Prim ’86

korji 3v commands...to do... -> 3v commands/tells...to do....

kuarti <E quart> 2v has a volume of/occupies/fills/measures...quart(s), default 1. (For precision, one of the modifiers gleco or merko should be used, e.g., gleco kuarti = ‘occupies an English quart (20 ounces)’, merko kuarti = ‘occupies an American quart (16 ounces)’.) N-Loan ’91

kumce (kue) <L kue> 2n is the reciprocal of... L-Prim ’91 (Reverse-derived from the little word kue = 'under/dividing' for inverse division in such a way that kue can be derived from it as a regular affix. Thus the /mc/ in kumce can be any medial pair. Can anyone think of a better, i.e., less likely to be misleading, pair?)

kutra (-) -> (kut)

laldo (lal) -> (lal lao)

lansa (-) <5/5S lanza 3/3F lance 3/4E lance 4/6G Lanze 2/4H bhala> 2n is a spear/lance made by... 44% C-Prim '91

larka -e/i/o/u (-) <4/4E lark 3/4H lava 2/5G Lerche 2/6J hibari 3/10R zhavoronok> 2n is a lark of region/range... 43% C-Prim ’86

latci (-) -> (lat)

lupsu -a/e/i/o (lup) <Lin. Lupus> 2n is a wolf of region/range... S-Prim ’91

magne (-) -> (mag)

muvdo (muv muo) -> (muv mud muo)

nakso 3v fixes...for use/user... -> 4v fixes...for use/user...by...

negda (neg) -> (-)negvo (nev) -> (neg)

nemdi (-) -> (nem)

nervo (-) is nervous about... (Delete nervo and incorporate its meaning into several CPXs, e.g., minynorkou = 'mentally-not-comfortable'.)

notbi (not) -> (not noi)

nu (nur) -> (nur nun) (This is the first time we’ve given a 2nd affix to a CV word. Nu is so widely used in CPXs, it now needs nun- for r-initial sequelae.)

nurvi (nuv) -> nervi (nev)

pafko (-) -> (paf)

paintu <E pint> 2v has a volume of/occupies/fills/measures...pint(s), default 1. (For precision, one of the modifiers gleco or merko should be used, e.g., gleco paintu = ‘occupies an English pint (10 ounces)’, merko paintu = ‘occupies an American pint (8 ounces)’.) N-Loan ’91

pansu (-) <3/4E pine 2/3C sung 3/5J matsu 2/4S pino 2/4G Pinie 3/8H sanaubar> 2n is a pine/pinetree of region/range... 54% C-Prim ’91

patmi (pam) <3/4F pate 3/5E(I) pasta 3/5H mathri 3/5S(I) pasta 2/4C mien> 1n is dough/pasta or food made from same, i.e., noodles, spaghetti, pastry, pie-crust, etc. 47% C-Prim ’91

perla (-) <3/3E pearl 4/4R perl 5/5S perla 4/4F perle 4/5G Perle> 2n is a pearl from... 57% C-Prim ’86

persiki <Lin. persica> 2n is a peach from... S-Loan ’91

perti (pei) -> (-)

petci (pec) -> (pec pei)

pirle (pie) -> (pir pie)

pirmidi <ISV> 3n is a pyramid of base-side...and height... S-Loan ’91

poldi (pod) -> (pol)

polji (-) <3/3E pole 3/3F pole 3/3G Pol 3/4S polo 3/5R polus 3/6C pei ji> 2n is a pole/mast of material... 64% C-Prim ’86

polka (-) <Pol. Pollack, Polski> 1a is Polish, part of the Polish language. N-Prim ’90

polke (-) <Pol. Pollack, Polski> 1n is a Polish place/territory, a district inhabited by Poles. N-Prim ’90

polki (-) <Pol. Pollack, Polski> 1n is a Pole/Pollack. N-Prim ’90

polko (-) <Pol. Pollack, Polski> 1a is Polish, part of Polish culture. N-Prim ’90

polsi (-) <4/5F police 5/7 policia 5/8R politsia 5/8G Polizei 3/5E police> 2n is a policeman/-woman of community/polity... 37% C-Prim ’91

posta (pot) -> (pos)

ramgu (-) <2/2C gu 2/4E drum 2/5F tambour 2/5G Trommel 2/6S tambor 2/7R barabai> 2n is a drum made by...

rapcu (-) -> (rap)

rasto (ras) -> (-)

retpi (rep) <4/6E reply 3/5F reponse 2/6R otviet 3/9S respuesta> 4n is an/the answer to question/problem...made by...to questioner... 33% C-Prim ’75 (This restores a useful distinction between retpi and dapli that was dropped from L1.)

rispe (ris) -> (ris rip)

rodja 2v grows into... -> 3v grows in soil/place...under conditions... (This differentiates it from cenja, grocea, tenri and the new (LN90/1) sense of valda; in doing so we also confine it to plants.)

romna (rom) <I. Roma> 1a is Latin, part of the Roman/Latin language. N-Prim ’91

romne (rom) <I. Roma> 1n is a Roman place/territory. N-Prim ’91

romni (-) -> (rom)

romno (rom) <I. Roma> 1a is Roman, part of - culture. N-Prim ’91 (By giving all the romn- predicates rom as a shared affix, we are exploring the idea that an affix derived from the stem of an inflected predicate set may be used to represent any of the predicates in that set, signifying what amounts to their shared sense. In the case of animal words, this core sense will, of course, also be conveyed by the -u form of the predicate.)

sadji (saj) -> (sad saj)

salki (-) <Lin. Salix> 2n is a willow/willow tree from place/region... S-Prim ’91

sange (-) -> (sag)

satni (-) <E,F,G satin> 2n is satin/a piece of satin cloth made by... I-Prim ’91

secle (-) <Lin. Secale> 2n is rye/are seeds of rye plants from... S-Prim ’91

siltu 2v shakes/oscillates/vibrates at rate... -> 3v ....(+) and amplitude...

snalo (-) <4/5E swallow 3/5H nigal(na) 2/4R glot(at) 2/4F aval(er)> 2v swallows... 37% C-Prim ’86

socli (sol) -> (soc)

solra (-) -> (sol)

stirigi <Lin. Striges> 2n is an owl of region/range... S-Loan ’91

su (-) -> (sur) (su = ‘n/at least one of’ is being added to the set of CVs which have CVr affixes.)

sundi (sud sui) -> (sui)

surdi (sur) -> (sud)

suske (sus) <3/5F soupcon(ner) 2/4C ke yi 3/7E suspect 3/7S sospech(ar)> 3v suspects...of act/intention... 33% C-Prim ’91

taksi (-) <All but C> 2n is a taxi of community... I-Prim ’91

tcaku 3v shocks...with/by... -> 2a is shocked/appalled by...

tifru (tiu) -> (tif tiu)

tisra (tia) -> (tis tia)

tonme (-) <E ton> 2v weighs...ton(s), default 1. N-Prim ’91

totco (tco) -> (toc tco)

tsime 3n is a crime punishable by...among... -> 3n is a crime among...punishable by...

tsodi (-) -> (tso)

turdu -a/e/i/o <Lin. Turdus> 2n is a thrush of region/range... S-Loan ’91

vedma (ved vea) -> (ved vem vea)

vegri (-) -> (veg)

veslo (veo) -> (vel veo)

vetfa (-) -> (vef)

zavlo (zav zao) -> (zav zal zao)

5. Problems:

Here's a more specific solution to the trilogy problem: Use terbukcu or terstuci ("3-book" and "3-story", respectively). Terstuci could lead to ambiguities, however, because it also sounds like a description of an anthology.

Next Issue:

Electronic devices, primarily VCRs, CDs, etc. Two issues from now there will be book and media genres (science fiction, sitcoms, etc.).