In the notes for this episode I shall put the Loglan text only when there are signiŽcant alterations by JCB. Since JCB went through this part of the text at least twice, some of the notes refer to versions that are no longer shown: I have included such notes because they teach something about Loglan, or because of the light they shed on JCB’s manner of working.

3Le Hapvei vi le Folhaa
The Party at the Castle

Sally came to the hotel at six. And I meet Ess in the lobby. Ess wears a red and yellow dress, and not the short pants such that Ess had worn pee (the pants) to drive the pedicab. And Ess is very pretty to me.
la Nevo{ma/}n. Why not just Nevon? Adding /n/ to a numberword has been a standard way of naming local hours for years.


Hello, Sally, says I. And to-me is-beautiful the-you dress. Hello, Alex, thanks. And are you ready for us to go? says Sally. Certainly-happily, say I. And are we going by means of your pedicab? Certainly not, says Ess. And the way to the castle is very steep, and no something is-a-tow rope. And so we’ll by-funicular go. And you’ll enjoy that. And let’s go.
The distinction between a period followed by a capitalized Inurau and a semicolon followed by l.c. inurau is one I’m not sure how to make in speech yet. Alex has chosen the former, and the choice between these treatments does seem to be one we want to preserve. Perhaps a deŽnitely longer pause for the pause is how we’ll mark it in speech.

sloslo: slopu-slopu : B is very steep, precipitous
koctre : korce-trena : B is a funicular, cable-pulled train

Now we (I and another jointly) went out of the hotel and strolled along the river bank. And we looked at the many boats on the wide river. And several of bee (the many boats) were water taxis, and lots of bee were small sailing boats, and one bee was a ßoating restaurant.
These are collective activities, so miu twice. The only issue here is whether to use ne bei or ne mebei.My opinion on this usage matter—and my own practice—is to continue using the ne bei form despite the existence of its ne mebei expansion (provided by Randall), and thus to consider ne bei and kin as just one more abbreviated usage that can, when necessary, be eliminated by replacing it with a longer, logically more explicitform, namely ne mebei.The best reason for doing this, it seems to me—and this has become a Keugru-cum-Lodgru note, and so I’ll copy it to that destination—is that all indeŽnite descriptions are already abbreviations:Ne preda (of which Ne mebei is just an instance) is short for Neba ji preda = One x such that x is a preda, and thus conceals an existential quantiŽcation.If we can and should use indeŽnite quantiŽcation in L, where it shortens speech and harmonizes with natural language, then surely we should use ne bei whenever we can, realizing that it is short for not only ne mebei but for neba ji mebei and can always be so expanded.Abbreviation and expansion are, we are discovering, at the very soul of this language:by the one, it becomes humanoid; by the other, it can be made “computeroid” whenever we (or some computer) wishes it to be.No reason not to apply this principle wherever we can.

sladzo : slano-dzoru : K stroll to D from S via V
vritaksi : vrici-taksi : B is a river-taxi of waterway system F
resrybou : resra-botsu : B is a restaurant boat/ßoating restaurant of locality F

That’s the most luksu restaurant in the Capital, said Sally. I don’t understand the-word luksu, say I.

Grasic : grada-sitci Great City, rather than Garsic: Capital
luksu : Loglandian slang word : luxurious. International.

I {no,/}ra damlogla purda {/no}ga dreti logla, ibuo mio pifno plizo lo {argo/damleu ceu}. I oa tu cirna lo dreti logla, euia.
Doubly sorry, says Sally. And the word luksu is a slang word meaning the word luxurious. And every slang word is not proper Loglan, but we often use slang anyway. I think you should learn correct Loglan, don’t you?
Next comes a logical point, evidently missed by me the Žrst time around. If it’s not the case that “all slang words are proper Loglan”, then it is the case that “some slang words are not proper L”. This is what you’ve said above and it’s too weak a claim. What S undoubtedly means is that allslang words are improper. You can say this in two ways: that it’s not the case that at least one slang word is proper L; or that all slang words are not proper L. The Žrst option will involve no, su and a positive predicate and will seem indirect to the E mind; the second will involve ra and a negative predicate and will seem direct. This is reversal again. S will know how to use it; A may not. But take your pick. If you want to go easy on your E-speaking readers, use ra and the negative predicate.
Mio is correct here: I and others separately.
Next, argo is the word for elemental silver.Argotis argot in F & E; jerga (/XER-ga/) in S and gergo (/DJER-go/) in Italian. It is Geheimsprache in G, and god knows what in R, J, H, & C. So one could make a local European N-Prim from E, F, S, It, and no doubt it would come out something like ?hargo. Or one could borrow argotfrom F & E and get ?argotu or ?argou. I frankly think that it doesn’t deserve either of these special treatments. Argot is not really international in any transeuropean sense; and it’s certainly not primitive semantically. So a complex would probably be better. Something like “work-language” ?turleu for the professional sense of argotand ?damleu or ?tridyleu for its other sense as slang.. I’ve chosen damleu; but take your pick. This is strictly “writer’s choice”. If you want argou, use it. Finally, I stuck in ceu gratuitously. The sentence seemed to need it.
The ga is superßuous, used for clarity.She uses mio (mi + x) because here she is speaking of brana logli, and in this context excluding Alex, although A is also logli.

damlogla : damni-logla : B is a Loglandian slang word, slang
damleu : damni-lengu : B is slang, low language
euia : experimental question tag. Isn’t it. Don’t you, etc

Sally laughs and links the Ess’s (her) arm with my arm. We walk throughout an interval that measures in minutes Žfteen; and, after that, we arrive at the lower station of the funicular. And we go into the station, which was built at the bottom of a cliff.
I won’t comment on the nia nefe minta usage; it’s been under study for some years, and what it says literally is unfortunate, namely throughout some Žfteen things each of which lasts (by default) one minute.Now that is true of the minute-long segments of a continuous Žfteen-minute period, but it is also true of some Žfteen separate one-minute periods when the walkers were busily jumping up and down, interspersing their one-minute walks with sittings on parkbenches; and I am uncomfortable with that.I said I wouldn’t comment, but in fact I have; and what I think I’m recommending is that we depart (sorrowfully) from the NLs here and say nia ne minta je lio nefe = throughout one interval that measured in minutes the number Žfteen.(Ouch!We must, Hoi Keugru, rie, continue our study of the whole measurement system some day!It is possible that some carefully crafted abbreviations will get us out of these counter-intuitive messes that literal interpretations of our measure predas seem to get us into.)]
By not using a comma before which in the target E, you suggest you mean a restrictive clause, for which standard American E would have you use that.But everything about the L and the general situation suggests you mean to impart incidental information, and so intend an unrestrictive clause. So that’s how I’ve translated it.


Where do we separately buy tickets? say I.
This could be mu or mo, depending on whether A expects them buy their tickets jointly or separately. But I imagine that, as a polite visitor, A’ll be offering to buy A’s own ticket, hence mo. And from the comment below, this is evidently correct.


{Mu/Mio}furvea lo ketpi lo tabko vemhao, hue la Selis{,/.}Ibuo niba nable. I mi ponsu ro ketpi. I {lo/le}samto ketpi ga nu plizo mu{/o}lo grutaksi, e lo sictre, e lo nendertre, e lo vritaksi. I oe tu furvea ne kepybuu, ja mutce nurkusti. I ra {kepybuu ketpi ga nurprati ne cenybraonu je lio sife/bukcu ketpi ga cenybraonu lio fe}.
We (I and others separately) buy tickets at tobacco kiosks, says Sally. But there is no problem. And I’ve got plenty of tickets. And the same tickets are used by all of us separately for buses, trams, subway-trains, and watertaxis. And I think you should buy a book of tickets, which is much cheaper. And each book ticket is worth in centibrowns Žve.
This time S will surely use Mio I and others separately.Next, another period is required. Next, I suggest le rather than lo because S is now referring to some deŽnite bunch of tickets, not to tickets in general. Next, we have an opportunity to use the global multiple moo; let’s use it! And isn’t bukcu ketpi less repetitious than kepybuu ketpi? If you give me the choice, I’d go for something close to Ra kepybuu ketpi ga cenybraonu lio sife, and have so edited it. Finally, the reason I removed the si from sife was because, now that S is talking about worth, not cost, S won’t want to stress the “at-most-ness” of the price!

kepybuu : ketpi-bukcu : B is a ticket book, carnet for transport system N.

Sally showed the-Ess’s book of tickets to me. And if you will stay in the City, then I think you should get a monthly ticket, says Ess..
I’m still wondering whether mesyketpi wouldn’t make a better, more transparent word than mearketpi, as mes is available.

mearketpi : mensa-ketpi : B is a monthly ticket, abonnement on transport system N

I le ri koctre karti ga nu durna ro nu fomvelpli {je ba jue lo/}ferno, e katli ro gliso cundo.
Now we (S and I) stand on the platform of the station and watch the funicular descending from the upper station. And the funicular track is steeper than the horizontal by 45 degrees. And the several funicular cars are adorned with many moulded iron things (with much cast-iron), and have lots of glass windows.
Miu is now the collective sense of I and another. The only other change I’ve made is to delete je ba jue lo as over-elaborate (probably my fault!), leaving a leaner ro nu fomvelpli ferno.
Your use of slopu cau fofe jagdugri for sloped at 45 degrees implies a base plane, e.g, steeper than the horizontal by 45 degrees; and a hyperloglanized mind might actually put that in:slopu lo lelpi fofe jaguidgri.I’m not suggesting you do this...just remarking the possibility, which was brought to mind by that case tag of yours.
You’ve treated durna as 4-place, the sutori args being ro nu fomvelpli ba lo ferno. But it’s only 2-place, so ba lo ferno is uninterpretable except metaphorically (but no “attachment metaphor” comes to mind, nemouu!). (4) Looking at your E, I see that each car is evidently to be “made of ornamental cast iron” and putting that into L is not difŽcult: nu madzo ba lo durna ge nu fomvelpli ferno, or, if the ba, which implies “made by someone”, jars on our E-ears, try a case tag: nu madzo sau lo durna ge nu fomvelpli ferno. (5) You’re using kii to get the “glass windows” in; but kii is not the way to do it (glass windows are not companions of the ornamental cast iron (oci), nor are they the tools, as tie would imply, of making funicular cars out of oci. No; as I visualize these cars I see them made of oci mixed with many glass windows: sau lo durna ge fomvelpli ferno ja misycea ro gliso cundo. (You could also say made of oci and jointly of many glass windows: sau lo durna ge fomvelpli ferno ze ro gliso cundo.

jagdugri : jaglo-dugri : degree(s) of angle

I, faza, tei clado rajysonpro sac{/gan}goi.
We enter the sloping car, which is such that the ßoor of tee (the car) is stair-form. And soon tee with loud squeals starts to climb. And the lower station slowly disappears from the view of us.

I suggest sacgangoi as more vivid.

I, vi le midju je le{? laa/}kursia{/,}ba groda terspatcu ne mrenu ji horski.
We come out of the upper station onto the wide square in front of the castle. And in the middle of the square there is a large statue of a man who is on horseback.
You don’t want laa. Think of Russell’s example: The author of Waverly.There is only one. There are plenty of wide squares, so this is just the one you have in mind. I’d use a comma after this phrase.

zvokaa : zvoto-kamla : K come out of S to D via V

Ta dilri le bragai ji nu namci li{/, la}Vori Ot{t/}os{/,}lu, hue la Selis{,/.}I bei pa ckozu lepo le folhaa ga nu balci. I levi kursia ga nu namci li{/, la}Ot{t/}os Kursia{/,}lu.
That represents the king who is named ‘la Vori Otos’, says Sally. And bee (this king) caused the castle to be built. And this square is named ‘la Otos Kursia’.
You need commas around the quoted bit. It’s also good practice to include a la along with a quotation that is to be used as a name. Otherwise you’re quoting a vocative. Also, no L consonants are ever doubled except the vocalics /m n l r/, and these only to indicate their locally vocalic nature, as in retrroviri and Rrl. Finally, notice that in the E translation the quoted bits are nottranslated. It is simply not true that this Xian king was “Otto the Eighth” to his Xia-speaking subjects.


I su pei kiidzo ce takna lo{/pei}fremi. Isui ro kangu ga {/loir}prano ce pleci vi le kursia. I le folhaa ga nu {setfa ba,/sitfa}ne fando je le kursia. I le folhaa ga nurbai go ganta ce nu durna{je/}ro ßaci.
Many persons were in the square. And some pee (some of the many persons) sit at most of the tables that are outside the several cafes. And some pee walk with, and talk to, their friends. And also many dogs run about and play in the square. And the castle is situated at one end of the square. And the castle is a building that is high and decorated with a lot of ßags. And, on one side of the square, there is a low wall. And from tee (the low wall) is a view of the river and, jointly, of the whole city.
Your target E suggests you mean to say theirfriends, lopei fremi. Lo fremi means just friends in general, anybody’s friends. Dogs running about and running to A from B are different activities; so I made a new preda for the former: “locally run”. Surely you mean sitfa rather than setfa, and with sitfa you don’t need ba. Next there is some bad usage: using je to connect an argument to a main predicate is not good L. It’s grammatical but misleads the eye or ear into thinking that it’s dealing with either a description or an internal speciŽcation; and it’s grammaticality is due only to the “superset phenomenon” I’ve discussed elsewhere, something that was reluctantly let into the language in the interests of programming efŽcienty.

toeski : tobme-skitu : table-sit : K sits at a table
RAM: Alex has used loirprano for locally-run, run-about, but the canonical (dictionary) form is lokprano

The Žreworks will start when this place is dark, says Sally. I suggest we each have at least one beer and watch the sunset.
Your use of satci is incorrect; it means is a start, the source or beginning of something. What you want is has a start, starts.This could be sackai, start-has, a cpx I’ve just added to LOD. The last “we” is distributive, you and I each.


I, na lepo {mie/miu}fadgoi le ckafe guo, {ri pernu ji toeski/ri toeski pernu}, ga krataa {mie/miu}.
We (I and another) went together to a cafe , which is incidentally adorned with a few red umbrellas, on which incidentally is written,”La Kokakolas, ia kofkledymao je tu go nero. And, when we reach the cafe, a few table-sitting persons call out to us.
Again, please use toeski, which gives sitting at the table (in the sense of facing it and using it), instead of skitu vi, which includes sitting on, under, or with their backs turned toward, the table.This is the most important error you’ve made in the whole six days of lessons, A, in the productive sense of its being potentially most useful to you in Žning up your comb.Please don’t take B’s tolerance of this sort of E-style looseness too seriously, for it is the result of his too-easily understanding you.But you are, after all, both E-speakers, so of course understanding one another’s zavlo logla is easy to do!But this comradely understanding and forgiving of one another’s errors is not the route to lopu brana logli, to which we all aspire.
You are clearly of two minds about the red umbrellas. Your target E suggests that they are restrictive, while your L suggests they’re unrestrictive. I’ve gone with the latter. Later, I liked your idea of table-sitting persons best and so edited it.
kofkledymao : komfu-kleda-madzo : comfortably-cool-makes. kofkledymao might be used in advertising, rather than -cko, as sounding more active and purposeful.


Hoi Selis, loi. I skitu vi, {e/ize}kinci miu! hue ne le pernu.
O Sally, hello! And sit here, and concurrently be a companion of us ! said one of the persons. Hello, Elvis, says Sally. And I’m happy to see you. And this is my foreign friend, who is named the word Alex.
These are concurrent acts, so I’m suggesting ize rather than e. There are many ways of saying this; one way I particularly like, but didn’t edit in, is I kinci je miu go skitu vi! And be a companion of us by sitting here !You could also say I skitu go kinci miu vi!. But what you can’t say is *I skitu vi go kinci miu, I have often thought that we should extend the use of go in this direction. It would make possible all sorts of afterthought adverbial phrases as deferred parts of utterances. Remind me to suggest this to the K. (I’ve just taken a bit of time out to do that.)


La Elvis vrelaa ce junti mrenu, e plizo ne mekleo{, ja nu frama lo testudini konce/ji testudini konce nu frama}.
Elvis is a tall young man and uses a pair of glasses that are tortoiseshell framed. And Ee (Elvis) seemed to be a very intelligent one.
The one edit I’ve made has two aspects: 1) the clause is restrictive, not non-restrictive, so ji not ja; and 2) using testudini konce as a modiŽer of nu frama seems a bit more direct than nu frama lo testudini konce. Also, using these last two words as modiŽers avoids the question, soi crano, of what is the best descriptor in such constructions. I would personally lean toward su testudine konce, some tortoiseshell, rather than lo testudine konce. Thus, with my present understanding of the language, I would now say Da madzo su ferno, made of one or more pieces of iron / made of some iron, rather than Da madzo lo ferno, made of some manifestation of the mass of iron, though either works. Similarly, I would say Lo simba! for the observative based on a whiff, but Su simba! for one or more of the beasts actually seen on a hillside. Applying all this to eyeglasses frames, apparently some frames were once made of “one or more pieces of tortoiseshell”; so it seems unnecessarily vague to speak of “some manifestation of Mr. Tortoiseshell”, though again the latter is certainly true. So this too is writer’s choice.

testudini :: Lin. Testudines. :: B is a tortoise

RAM: The dictionary already has testudi for tortoise. I see no reason to change it.

Hello, Alex, said Elvis. And please sit. And you come from which country? And do you speak Loglan? And are you pleased by Grasic? And you want to drink what? And that is Xanthippe, and that is Johnwayne, and that is Gromkhlitch, and that is Babyjane.
APL: 19/05: Hm. Can ta change referent like that? It ought to, if one is allowed to infer E’s pointing gesture.
JCB: Yes it can.This is the way demonstratives are used in L, just as in E.They’re always available to be reused immediately.It’s for this reason that we sometimes need to replace demonstratives with members of the da series when we want to talk about their designata again.


Santi, Elvis{,/!}hue la Selis krostimao. I oa tu kencue si kenti, ice{pa}letci {la Aleks, nepo dapli/supo la Aleks dapli}.
Be silent, Elvis! says Sally interrupting. And I think you must ask at most one question, and then let Alex give one or more answers.
Apart from exclaiming the imperative, which ought to be a standard move, one that the Transcriber facility of the new Resolver can regularly follow, I saw an opportunity to use the compound icepa and-then, and took it. Then the evident awkwardness, for Alex, of the 4-place-structure of letci became my main concern. I decided to rebuild letci as a 2-placer with a LEPO-clause expected in its 2nd place, and I illustrated the new deŽnition in my LOD Edit with Da letci lopo de sucmi vi le vrici to make the point about actors, actions, and conditions all being potential parts of the argument in 2nd place; and I then edited A’s text to Žt the new deŽnition. Improving LOD entries, including deŽnitions, should be a duty—not just a privilege—of all of us who use LOD with any sophistication.


Sorry, Sally, says Elvis. I’m very pleased that I meet the-you foreign friend. Elvis turned to me. Please sit, Alex, says Ee. But there were no empty chairs. And three dogs lying in the table-below wagged their tails at me.

tilbysiu : tilba-siltu : K (a dog or cat probably) wags its tail at B.

La Selis jmitorpuo la Elvis, e le notbi toeski. I {lo logli/loe logli tora ji da ze de}ga {cikpoa/}jmitorpuo{/kue}duo nepo {ba/da}satro le{be/de}nazbi le{ba/da}nazbi{/, cea}, {ice/ize}da satro lede rirgu leda hanco{. I/, cea, ize}da ze de {cutse\cuskue}li, Tu{sutplu, ia/, ia sutplu}! lu. I levi kusmo{/, ja lia ro notbi,}ga nu ckozu lopo lo logli {ga/rona}clibiu lo kangu {robo/}. I mi napa klimao lepo lo logli ga mutce fundi lo kangu.
Sally embraces Elvis and the other table-seated persons. And the typical Loglander pair X,Y embrace one another on meeting by a ceremony in which X rubs the-Y nose with the-X nose, and vice versa, and concurrently X pats the-Y bottom with the-X hand, and vice versa, and concurrrently X and Y say to one another, “You’re certainly fragrant!” And this custom, like many others, is caused by the fact that Loglanders frequently model their behavior on dogs. And I have already explained that Loglanders are very fond of dogs.
I’ve worked this one over pretty thoroughly, reinventing and correcting the language along the way. I’ve also permitted myself to make some gratuitous suggestions. But, as always, yours are the Žnal choices, Alex.
First, I think we’d better start talking about “the typical Loglander pair” instead of just “Loglanders”. Second, we need to have designations of the members of that pair in order to report what each member does; so I’ve used ji da ze de to proivide a 2nd designation of the pair. 3rd, I’ve eliminated cikpoa and given jmitorpuo the sufŽx -kue to make a reciprocal out of it. You need to get your readers used to the -kue (each other ) sufŽx, Alex; it promises to be very widely used. (I’ve just added clukue, love each other, thho LOD to seed this process.) 4th, I’ve replaced ba with da and be with de throughout, for that’s how the members of the pair are now being identiŽed. 5th, I’ve redeŽned cea, derived from cenja, which once meant That is/In other words, as and vice versa.We need it desperately here.And the That is function of former cea can easily be performed by saa along with saa’s present meanings: Loosely/Speaking simply.I’ve also made this proposal to the K.$$

RAM: We didn't need to change cea et al. because LOD already has fae for 'and vice versa' which change, therefore, is not desperately needed.

After the cea move I turned the ices into izes to make all these mutual actions joint occurrences, and I turned cutse into the new cpx cuskue say <the same something> to each other.I then changed the position of ia to make it emphasize the following term, which seemed more natural in this case, and inserted, quite gratuitously, the non-restrictive remark ja lia ro notbi, like many others, and then used rona to get the sense of your robo, but less mysteriously. That’s all I did, but it was quite enough, soi clafo!
Before we leave this much worked-over para let me point out that there’s a simpler, more compact, but less precise—and so, possibly less funny—way of describing the Loglandical greeting ceremony, namely by using -kue sufŽxes throughout. Here it is, and if you want to use it, do. But I personally don’t think it’s quite as funny as the da ze de and cea way I’ve suggested above; though it ismore compact:
I loe logli tora ga jmitorpuokue duo nepo tei satkue letei nazbi letei nazbi, ize tei satkue letei rirgu letei hanco, ize tei cuskue li, Tu, ia sutplu! lu.
And the typical Loglander pair embrace one another on meeting in a ceremony in which tee (the pair) rub each other’s noses with each other’s noses, and concurrently tee rub each other’s bottoms with each other’s hands, and concurrently tee say to one another “You are certainly fragrant !”

clibiu : clika-bivdu : K behaves like S in circumstances N

I mi {/fui}hansiu{/ levi pernu}, icha mi {/fui}trati lepo mi plizo {ne/ri}loglo po jmitorpuo, ueuo{./?}Ifeu niba {/pa}nable.
It’s not the case that I was acquainted with one or more rules specifying something that I should do under these circumstances. And I should shake hands with them, is how connected to I should try to use the Loglander greeting? And in fact nothing was a problem. And I shook hands with the two men, and I kissed the two women on both cheeks, like I and others each do in France.
Fui should be used in the question the Alex character is asking himself, for A is asking about what is objectively true. Also, ri instead of ne for the number of embraces in the next sentence; A has several people to greet; icha turns the clause-pair into a question about the truth of either or both clauses; so we need the question-mark. Finally, I believe it’s safer to put the niba nable remark back into time, soi crano.

RAM: WHen I first enountered icha, I thought it was a misprint for ica and it certainly doesn't parse with the current LIP. However, I see it was intended as an extension of ha to the ica series, which JCB and Aleks are treating as normal without comment. I wonder how they intended to extend it to the ca series, as cha is not very pronounceable.


Na lepo mi {/pia}jmitaa {le fo/lefo}logli duo le fraso durfoa, ice lei {/pia}jmitaa mi duo le loglo durfoa guo, lei pa cutse {lelei/le le takna gu}namci.
When I was greeting each of the four Loglanders in the French manner, and each of ell (the four Loglanders) was greeting me in the Loglandical manner, each of ell said the speaker’s (i.e., his own) name. And Xanthippe is a large woman and be-haired in a very beautiful red way. And JohnWayne is a small and thin man, and uses very thick spectacles. And Gromkhlitch is a man and a seeming athlete. And Gee (Gromkhlitch) is be-haired shortly and be-muscled bigly. And BabyJane is a very sexy woman and be-haired blackly.
Since this is a deŽnite event, it deserves a deŽnite time; and lefo is customarily written as a phrase. The next edit is especially interesting. The way it was, each logli said the name of each logli! Logli must do better than that, so I suggested that each one said the speaker’s name. Another, shorter way to do this is to insert the free mod toe, respectively, after namci. This would presupposes a toe-convention for sorting out the logic later. Writer’s choice. Ah! I see from your next comment that you were waiting on a respectively decision. I believe we have one now. Toe is in LOD.
RAM: Le fo in my experience (and LIP & APL as well) is always written as two words. JCB was perhaps thinking of lemi and lena which are written as a single word because they are parsed as lexeme LE. Toe
was left out of the published version.


— Letu namci ga gutra. I no, mi napa {hirti/dridja} nei.
I shake hands with Gromkhlitch.And says I: Your name is strange.And it’s not so that I have been acquainted with it.
I altered the dialogic para convention experimentally to see how you/we like it.I liked your dridja idea best.You did a very nice job, below, of analyzing your way out of a trap laid by an E idiom! Still, coming upon your target E, Iwondered why you didn’t say:I mi napa kenoi vizka, kinoi hirti gu nei pa ti. And I have neither seen nor heard it before this ?
APL: 970120: come to think of it, hirti may not be whatwe need here. K hear V, a sound, against background/noise Nputs the emphasis on the physical auditory event. Perhaps it should be LOD: hirdri : K notice/remark V,or create: hirdjacea : become acquainted with ... by hearing. Or dridja or spedja because it’s not really about hearing, I had not met it in reading either.


— Liu Gromxlitc,laldo ge mela Xi,as namci, hue Gai.{I mi/I, tau mi,}no kau soncue {nei/gaoGeo}, le laldo fu soncue.
— The word Gromkhlitch,is an old Xian name, says Gee.And even Ican’t pronounce Gamma with the old sounds.And my friends call me by the wordGrom.
Using Gai for la Gromxlitc here is ok because it was so used three paras ago.(That would seem to make it lie within the scope of letter-variable assignments, a rule we’re still trying to Žgure out!)But notice that if Gai weren’t already assigned, it would replace liu Gromxlitc. The latter cannotbe replaced by nei (as you thought it could) because there is no description—just a predicate expression—with an n-initial principal predicate in it for nei to replace!The only available letter-variable for liu Gromxlitcis capital gamma, gaoGeo.It’s long...longer than a normal letterword, but still a littleshorter than both liu Gromxlitcand leminamci. So I’ve used it.(Also, it’s good to get these rare devices used from time to time.) I also made a new discursive, tau from stari. for the surprisinglysense of even.We need to muscle out our kit of “even”s; and I believe this one will be particularly useful.Notice that I used tau in the “emphasize and modify the followingword”, two-comma-ed way that grew out of your suggestion.Doesit work for you?

tau <stari> even/surprisingly/unexpectedly (UI).

Mi suirbeo {/lui raba}{lo/ne}birju ji nu{sto/vea}mra li, {/La }Crano Telfoa,lu{gu lui raba/}, ice la Selis{, e/ze}mi nuo skilei to{/cu}cersi jio la Elvis {/ple}tsitoa {jo/}cei le nedza tobme.
I order for everyone one beer that is trademarked “La Crano Telfoa”, and Sally and I jointly seat ourselves on a set of two chairs such that Elvis pinches see (the set of two chairs) from the next table.
Using lo blurs the issue here.I’d rather you moved lui raba to justbefore the beer designation and then used ne to specify the number of beers that each x got..(Order of mention counts in making these implicit quantiŽcations.)Then what you have said is precise.for every x, exactly one beer is ordered for x. I also inserted Lain the trademark (otherwise it would say Be a Smiling Planet! ); changed e to ze (otherwise you would eachhave seated yourselves on twochairs, a precarious undertaking!); added -cu to to; and, even before I saw your jo, I made a word for pinch. You may of course go back to tsitoa jo if you prefer it.(We need a word for pinch anyway, soi crano.)
APL: 970120:I guess the brandname should be li-lu’ed.But I’m not sure. La Crano Telfoa ga stomra levi birjuThe-named SmilingPlanet is a brand-name on this beer. Hm.That designates a particular planet, doesn’t it?
JCB: No.It names whatever you want it to name.Names can be, and often are, funny things:La Ritcrd ji Simba Nu Karci
APL continues: But we want to designate the words. Li-lu still feels cumbersome to me, but I think I’ll get used to using them. (And appreciate the clarity payoff).
JCB: You will.The trademark and the trademarked beer are two quite different things.As different as John is from his name.

veamra : vedma-marka :B is a trademark/brand-name on/of S
RAM: We already have stomra for brand name and batmra for trademark in LOD and I do not see the
necessity of additing yet another (veamra) with the same meaning.
pletsitoa : pleci-tsime-tokna : K pinch/playfully steal B from S

— Drink happily!says each of us, drinking.
During the L3 work, I struggled with the issue of whether all L imperatives should be exclamatory.In nature, some are, some aren’t.In L3,I opted for yes.It seemed to make much more sense than cao-ing or fm-ing the ones that were and not cao-ing or fm-ing the ones that weren’t.That policy worked very well, I thought.So let’s exclaim this one, too, but keep the issue under review.

APL: 981107: Or mio, since we all said it individually—or do we want to emphasize the choral nature of the toast?
JCB: Writer’s choice.If you want to emphasize the choral nature of the toast, and the soldierly nature of the drinking afterwards, use miu, but if you want to suggest the individuality of both toasting and drinking, the ripple character of both, then mio.


— You stay at what? says Xanthippe. — The McIvor Arms Hotel, says I, replying. — Aitch (the McIvor Arms Hotle) is an excellent hotel, says Grom. And have you bathed in themineral-water pool?
Toi purfe...except that it does seem odd to use the least distinctive feature of a serial name as the source of its letter-variable replacement!I wonder if a certain discretion ought to be allowed with serial names?Suppose we were to say that, in their case, the short-form to which they would naturally be abbreviated—in this case, to La McIvor—should,whenever that is obvious, be the source of the letter-variable?This is beginning to seem a bit ad hoc, to me, soi crano; so I’m not going to suggest it. Just ask you to think about it.

gudgudbi : gudbi-gudbi : B is excellent
miurcui : minku-cutri : B is mineral water from source S

— Noipacefaza, hue mi.
— Not yet but shortly, says I.

JCB: Toi cao brili !

— Ue.I{ta/cei}famva cmavla,hue Gai.$$I ba cuirsatci, e nilca le hotle, e proju ro hatro cutri. I {/da fa}mutce gudcko{lopo/lepo tu}djela.I {cei/ceo}nu {miksa/@mispai}ro minku go curcko lopo djela. Ibuo no hompi ce{i/o}, imoi lece{i/o) gusto ga nu tasgu.
—I’m surprised!And see (the mineral-water pool) is a famous pool, says Gee. And something is a spring, and under the hotel, and produces much hotwater.And X (that something) will much improve the state of your health. And chi (that hot water) contains as ingredients many minerals that protect health (in general).Butdon’t drink chi, because chi’s taste is disgusting.
I back-searched for the last cei; it was in Para 39, where it stood for the two chairs pinched by Elvis.That was 6 paras ago and a one-time use.It begins to feel that that’s not enough to reserve it.So I’m reusing cei to replace le miurcui cmavla in Para 43 as a better designation than your ta was.
In the next sentence I was torn between admiring the logical nakedness of there being something x that is all 3 of these wonderful things and trying to redo it with various linking words.Finally the admiration won out. (Who knows?Maybe these brana logli will actually talk like that!) But if you want something that is a tiny bit closer to the E, you could say I ba cuirsatci go nilca lehotle, e proju ro hatro cutri. The next sentence needed a subject,so I used da to replace ba in the previous oneand inserted fa to make it a prediction.And lepo tu djela is a more concrete designation of the state of the narrator’s health.Lepu would work, but lepo is closer to your intended meaning (I think).Lopo doesn’t work with tu following it, and without tu, it’s “states of health in general”, which is almost certainly not what G is predicting the water is good for.
In the next sentence we have to use ceo to replace ro hatro cutri for cei has been recently used.I also made mispai foris an ingredient of a mixturebecause LOD didn’t have it.(The object in the 2nd place of miksa is a setof ingredients.)Then nu mispai says what we want to say here, namely contains an ingredient.Finally, ceo for cei twice, and we’ve got it.

APL: 971109: The nilca sentence, is it better this way? Also gudcko lopo djela—I still have difŽculties with lo, also with po and pu. Maybe here it should be lopu djela . The mass of properties of healthiness (of those who bathe there—can we take that as understood?)
JCB: I’ve suggested lepo tu djela and given some reasons why.
APL continues: In the minku sentence, minerals that produce healthy [people] is that too direct? Shouldn’t they produce the property of healthiness? 981108yes of course they should—proju lopu djela. As you see, I’m uncertain whether the minerals areuseful for/ produce/ support / or protect / the health.
JCB: I think your current minku go curcko lopo djela is just Žne.
mispai: miksa-parti : mixture-part : B is an ingredient of mixture N


I Gai pa gangau {le vriporkanpi, jao leu kanpi pe vei ga /la Vrici Sucvei, ja vetci rocukanpi ji}sucmi la Grasic, la R’aixenbax Felcui. I leva {ju/}rutma {/ga}{nu skadarli/kilmeo}lio tefe{keimei/}.
— Grom is a strong-strong swimmer, says BabyJane.And Gee was the champion of RiverSwim, which is an event involving a group of many competitors that swim to Capital from Reichenbach Falls.And that route measures in kilometers thirty-Žve. Bee (BabyJane) sexily smiled at Gee, andGee reddened.
I’m afraid I’ve chopped up the next two sentences.In the Žrst, I’ve replaced le vriporkanpi with la Vrici Sucvei, 1) making a name out of it rather than a description (following your target E); and 2) replacing an ill-made word with a better phrase.
Let me pause for a moment to explain the sense in which, by my lights, vriporkanpi is ill-made: it involves por, which I never have liked as an afŽx for po, and which I thought I had successfully removed from the language.But I notice that LOD is still making words with it; so I assume Bob still thinks it’s ok.There was a time, long ago—during our Eaton Jurywork together—when I yielded to B’s desire to embed abstractors like po experimentally in complexes by giving the abstractors /r/-Žnal afŽxes. Happily, nobody seemed to use this feature for years afterwards; I myself actively discouraged its use; and so, after a decent interval, I removed, or thought I’d removed, all traces of the por that at one time meant po from LOD.I thought I had also reassigned por to porli; but I see that that didn’t happen.

RAM: Roughly. JCB, in a conference call to Faith Rich and me, asked if we thought he should permit the
affix por. We both said 'yes', but I was aware of his dislike of the usage, and strove never to use it. Others use it and por remains in LOD as an affix, but there are no complexes in the current LOD which contain por. Evidently Alex was not convinced as it remains in his text. I also prefer the form leva rutma ga kilmeo lio tefe for unit measurements. On further reading, I find that none of the remaining suggested edits in this chapter have been implemented. This is probably an oversight as Chapter 4 has been modified.$$

The reason I was, and still am, against putting afŽxes for these kinds of operators into complexes is that abstraction is essentially external to the Loglan predicate idea.If you want to talk about a competition, say po kanpi.If you want to talk about a “speed competition”, a race, say po kukykanpi.I admit that’s long, and that E raceis very short indeed; so as E-speakers, we yearn for shortness here.So if la Vrici Sucmi Po Kukykanpi is too long for you (it is for me, soi crano), then let’s invent a metaphor that allows a shorter word, but, please, let’s make one without por. Sucvei might work forswimmers’ event,i.e., an event among swimmers.Then la Vrici Sucvei, or even la Vrisucvei, might have just the length you feel you need.I’ve gone with la Vrici Sucvei in my edit.It has a nice Loglandian ring,and notice that the vei works just as well as a por might have done, and is truer to the language.
Finally, I corrected the LOD deŽnition of rutma so as to get rid of your ju, and I used more standard (and shorter) L to say that the race was 35 km long. Sorry for having chopped this up so much, but this speech of BJ’s needed some work.
APL: 19/05: I’m worried about the last sentence. Perhaps ta instead of tao?And the comma after La Grom is intended: it seems to work here.
970119: tio.Also last sentence: ju rutma seems more precise, but rather “heavy”; however it’s a point that could become “lighter” withusage.
970120: just noticed that, if letteral scope ends with the paragraph, then Bai sekci crano Gai makes her smile at la Grasic. But letteral scope is longer, isn’t it, so we’re OK. Actually, I found myself thinking of something like variable scope in Pascal or C, a block structured language, where a contained block can declare a new variable with the same name as one used in the containing block. So the narrator will be using one set, and the quoted speech can use another. Maybe this would all get too complicated. But equally, it would be good to use this,in cases where it was clear. The narrative and the quoted dialog are conceptually separate. In E, we surely manage to distinguish ‘he’ in the narrative from the different ‘he’ in the dialog.So, “He’s dead,” he said cheerfully.

folfro : forli-forli : K is extremely strong
vriporkanpi : vrici-po-kanpi : B is a swimming race in river N
sucvei : sucmi-vetci : B is a swimming event
felcui : felda-cutri : B is a waterfall of region F. (cf FVL.2)

rutma [corrected its deŽnition from B is the route to D from S via Vto V is a/the route to D from S used by K(the route was in the old def’n twice).


— Leu {neri/riropasko}bukcu ji pa nu notlensea {/dio}la Loglan, bi leu stuci je la Cerlok Holmz.I ra mio pa ckela ridle sei.I laCerlok Holmz, mutce kukpeo ce lodfro.I ei tu napa ridle laeli, LeGrokau pe la B{‘a/a’}sk{e/}rvil Famji, lu?hue la Beibi{D/d}jei{/’}n.
— For what reason is the falls named the word Reichenbach ?says I.— The set of the several earliest books that were translated into Loglan isthe set of stories about Sherlock Holmes.And all of us (I and others)school-read ess (the set of stories).And Sherlock Holmes is very intelligent and logical. And have you read the book addressed by (quote) Le Grokau pela Ba’skrvil Famji(close quote) ? says BabyJane.
I replaced neri with riro pasko (several earliest ), hoping it would better express what you had in mind.(Leu neri bukcu probably doesn’t, because it says the set of Žrst books,which is either self-contradictory or vague.)I’ve inserted dio because nu notlensea requires something to get you to its 3rdplace.You could use ba, of course, to Žll the 2nd place.Writer’s choice.
APL: 970119: ckela ridle sei to minimize PA’s.


Nao ne grupa je ri kangu ga prano le ckafe, e skitu le fordi va miu, e {nu clado/nurcla} kaurtaa.I le te kangu ji resto {le/go}nilca je lemiu tobme ga bleka {je/} {lo/leu} humnu gu go meli, Eo miu pleci lomiufremi, lu.I la Elvis, e la Grom, hansa{a/nmao}{ba,/} le{/u} te kangu, ice kei prano {/nu} kinci leukei fremi, lepo sacgoi le midju je le kursia.
Now a group of several dogs runto the cafe, and sit on the ßoor near us (me and another), and softly bark.And each of the three dogs that lie under our table looks at the group of humans in a(quote) May we (I and another) play with our friends?(end quote) sort of way. And Elvis and Grom independently make hand-signs to the group of threedogs, and kay (that group of dogs) are runningly accompanied by the group of kay’s friends in departing for the middle of the square.
Nurcla exists; why not use it?(And even if it didn’t, why not make it?)Next I used go rather than designate the underneath-your-table region, which turns nilca je lemiu tobme into an adverbial phrase,.It seemed semantically more straightforward to do so, and grammatically less intricate, to do so. “Old go” as well as “new” permits this.
Next, I found myself studying New Go, and some good things as well as some horrors began to emerge.One of the good things was that it would allow us to remove this je after bleka.That would be good—an advantage of new go over old—because using je is bad form here.It suggests that bleka is being used as a modiŽer, an “internal predicate” being speciŽed, and it isn’t.It is true that when old go comes along, it tells us to change our minds and treat bleka as a modiŽcand.But by that time, it’s too late.We have already been “led” by that je “down the garden path” (as this grammatical problem has been romantically called).
Then, moving on, leu seemed a better descriptor than le for what the dogs are looking at.It is certainly better than lo; it’s not manifestationsof humans they’re looking at, but certain concrete humans.But, again, it’s writer’s choice.
I made hansanmao forthis verbal sense of hansaa, Alex, and this allowed me to eliminate ba; see my def’n of hansanmao below.(It’s always better to build a new preda, Alex, than to twist the meaning of an old one around to suit a new purpose.)I then thought that the two men probably signaled individually to the three dogs collectively, hence leu for the dogs.
I tried to use New Go on the ice-clause of this last sentence, and this led to the discovery of one of its horrors.I shifted some of your phrases around experimentally, Alex, and tried this:ice kei prano sacgoi le midju je le kursia gu go nukinci leukei fremi and kay runningly depart for the middle of the square, accompanied by the group of kay’s friends.But this didn ‘t parse as I expected it to, and by playing around with the Go LIP, I discovered that it took threegus to close off the intervening descriptions to make the go-phrase modify prano sacgoi!
Here’s a variation we can write without New Go:ice kei, ja nu kinci leukei fremi gu, prano sacgoi le midju je le kursiaand kay, accompaniedby kay’s friends, runningly depart for the middle of the square. But when we think of using prano as a delayed adverbial in this sentence—as, being E-speakers, we are inclined to do—the same difŽculty erupts.Again we discover that three gus are required to to put go prano at the end of this sentence with the sense we intend.In particular, with the current implementation of New Go, this is what we would have to say to imitate the order of E and kay, accompanied by kay’s friends, depart for the middle of the square on the run ice kei, ja nu kinci leukei fremi gu, sacgoi le midju je le kursia gu gugu, go prano.
This amounts to a reductio ad absurdumargument against the present implementation. Obviously no one could ever use adverbial go safely with this implementation.But there are also signs of hope here. Adverbial go would make a valuable addition to the language if we can learn how to manage it.I have written Bob and you separately about this, with some ideas about how a satisfactory implementation might be written.
APL: 31/05: Hansaa is in LOD as a noun. I’m adding a verbal meaning: K makes a gesture V meaning P to D in context N. Instead of durzo ne hansaa dio le te kangu.

JCB: Better to make a new preda, as below:

hansanmao : hanco-sanpa-madzo : K gestures/signs/hand-signals to D to do/be V


Nao le lusta skati pia redcea.I ba cmabeu, e {dzoru via/tcedzo} le kursia{vuva/} le ckafe.I {bei/da} muzkao su lalkuo {mela Rom/ge romhano} grimui{gu/}, ne violhina, ze ne git{arh/har}a, ze ne pucbao, ze ne sakykorne.I ri pernu ga danse vi le kursia. [cont’d]
Now the western sky was reddening.And something is a band and walks through the square on its way to the cafe.And X (that something) performs some traditional gypsy music on a violin and jointly a guitar and jointly an accordian and jointly a set of bagpipes.And a few persons dance in the square. [cont’d]
You’ve expressed a new predicate idea with dzoru via...vuva..., but you should make a new predicate for the new idea. I’ve made tcedzo from “through-walk”, on the model of tcegoi.In general, prepositions like vi, na, and kou are not to be used to change or extend predicate meanings, but to tell the reader where, when, and why the predicated act took place.The predicated act, in the case of dzoru, is for some actor K to walk to some destination D from some departure point S over some route V.That’s it.Walking throughsomething is not involved.You can use vi to say that this whole act took place in an area big enough to accommodate it, say Brooklyn, but you can’t use vi or via to change the nature of the act.Or, rather, you can, but it’s not good L to do so.This has been a difŽcult point for nearly all logli.See, for instance, Bill Gober’s column Hu Logla Sanpa Toi? in LN 92/2,p.4, for a good discussion of this.BG called this piece “TheConfessions of a PA Abuser”!
In the next sentence you evidently used bei to replace ba; but letter-variables are not used in this way.What you want is da.The da-series, remember, are used for replacing temporaries, like the non-designators and the demonstratives, with more permanent designations.
Romhana/e/i/o were made by me for FVL.02.2, and if you used them there, they should probably be used here.Also, you need a ge to group the pred string properly: “traditional type ofgypsy music”, not “the music of traditional gypsies”.Finally, I remade *gitarha, which breaks up as gi tarha, as githara.Now the /gi/, preceding as it does the inadmissibly initial pair /th/, won’t fall off.
APL: 31/05: I originally had le lusta skati pia cenja..., but the sky itself didn’t become the property-red. Its color did. Or could one have le kolro je le lusta skatipia cenja lo redro or le lusta skati pia redcea? I now tend to go for the last, but leaving this for discussion. 970120 : I now much prefer the latter. Earlier hesitation was because of LOD blush (as well as become red)
JCB: I have no problem with skies “becoming” red, which is what redcea says to me; it’s all a pretty metaphor anyway.

tcedzo : tceru-dzoru : through walk : K walksthrough N on the way to D from S.
lalkuo : laldo-kusmo :B is traditional in culture N
gitarha : (borrowing) : B is a guitar
pucbao : pucto-bakso : B is a squeeze-box, accordion
sakykorne : sakli-korne : B is a set of bagpipes

I le dansyfoa pa gutra mi. I no, le mrenu ze le fumna ga tora danse. Ibuo leu mrenu ga rande {forma/}stali, e {ritbue/bueblo}le dertu lemei Žtpi, ice leu fumna ga {/nengoi le mrenu rande, ice le fumna ga kuktrana go}mutce kukra{trana, go nenri le rande/}.I {gia/ga}nunrii ga {le/su}po su mrenu ga ganta valti, e hansonmao, e clado kraku.
And the dance-forms were strange to me. And it isn’t the case that the men and jointly the women pair-dance.But the set of men circle stand, and the set of women enter the men’s circle, and each of the women spins very fast.And occasional are some events of some men high jumping, and clapping, and loudly crying out.
I don’t think you need forma here; a circle already is a formal object, that is, identiŽed as such by its form.I liked your blobue better than your ritbue, but improved the metaphor, I think, by making the “hitting” part the modiŽcand.Bueblo (still your new word, by the way, to enter in LOD) also accommodates the 3rd place you want better than any bue-Žnal word would.
Gia nunrii : Continuously occasionalsounds like a contradiction to me, so I changed gia to ga.I also changed lepo to supo; we are just begiinning to learn how ßexible these LEPO forms really are.I left the rest of this sentence unchanged, but you should know that what you are saying here is that each of these one or more men jumped, and clapped, and loudly cried out. If that’s not what you mean, but would prefer to be saying that occasionally someone in this group of men jumped, or clapped, or loudly cried out, you can say so.Here’s how: I ga nunrii ga supo ba jie mei ganta valti, a hansonmao, a clado kraku.Your target E (now that I’ve read it)suggests a third sense:I ga nunrii ga supo ba jie mei ganta valti, zea hansonmao, zea clado kraku.Writer’s choice.“Saying what you mean” here involves a little more thought than the E writer is accustomed to spending on such constructions.
APL: 19/05: blobue may be wrong, if the to kill or injure aspect is essential.
And, oh dear, I’m still having trouble with le/lo/leu. When I wrote this, I was using lo as a plural, really. The set of men stamped with Mr Foot, or stamped with the feet I’m thinking of, having identiŽed the set of men. Both seem to work in their own way. That’s why, hoi Djim, I’ve left a lot of the original forms in, to get your comments.
31/05: let’s make ritbue : rinta-buste : K rhythmically stamps on B with [feet, boots, clogs, etc]
Then also I tried : Su mrenu ga nunrii ge ganta valti, e hansonmao, e clado kraku but couldn’t get the nunrii to qualify all the actions, while ganta should only qualify valti. Tricky. So left the easy way out. Discussion.
970120 : found dansyfoa in LOD, which is better than po danse.
And lo mrenu ze lo fumna—perhaps it should stand, analogy of lo taksi, but I’m not sure. I think when I wrote it originally I was still trying to use lo as a surrogate plural.
Now prefer go nenri le rande.


Let’s dance, O Alex, says Sally. Oh-dear, I doubt that I can dance that, says I. Surprise-anger. And don’t-be shy (social-fear), Alex, says Elvis. And it-is necessary [for] dancing, is fuel (Žre-food). And E called-to the waiter.
31/05: had danse lia tio, but I’ve expanded the 2nd arg of danse to cover a dance form, as well as music/rhythm.


O Janos, friend, said E, bring a jug of dancing fuel. The waiter returned-to our table, and put a small jug and seven tiny glass cups [on] the table. And Elvis poured the clear ßuid [into] the cups, which-incidentally became completely-full. And all-of us-individually lifted the cup.
APL: 31/05: lemio. Each lifted da’s own glass.970120: I think I’d now have lufta le kupta, letting it be understood (as with ‘my head’ etc) that the lifter lifts da’s own glass. 981109yes, the glass or glasses that I mean

zlupypatpe : zlupi-patpe : jug (having a lip).
cmacma : cmalo-cmalo : B is tiny.
kalßocea: kapli-folma-cenja : F becomes full of B

My logli friends shoutingly said, quote One. And two. And three. And bravely burn, unquote. And everyone drained their cup by one swallow.

APL: 970120: Leumi logli fremi. They all shouted together. ________________________________________________________

Happy-happy, said Elvis. And you how-about the dragon-piss, O Alex? I coughed, and said, (my voice was rough) quote, Wow, unquote. And Elvis again Žlled the cups, and we again swallowed the Žre-water. That’s-more-like-it, said E. And we will-immediately dance.
dralypinca : dralu-pinca : dragon-piss : B is Loglandian eau-de-vie (jocular term)
fagcui : fagro-cutri : Žre-water : B is eau-de-vie, strong alcohol


We joined one-of the dancing groups, and I found that it-was-not very hard was the dance-form. And-however the fast turning that the women did seemed harder. After we danced during about-Žfteen minutes, it got dark, and all the people who were-inside the square went towards the wall that was-a-side-of the square. And we awaited the beginning-of the Žreworks. The Žreworks continued about thirty minutes, and what ended f (Žreworks) was a large kind-of sky picture of one red dragon.
APL: 19/05: I started to put ji vi le skati, but actually it’s the picture that was in the sky anyway. Ji would allow the possibility of the picture being on the ground, but representing a dragon in the sky. Is this correct?970120: groda ge skati tcure 981109 yes I like this better


Apparently Mr. Dragon is very important-to the-mass-of Loglanders, said I.
Yes, said Sally. And the red dragon is the national emblem of Loglandia, and is depicted-on the ßag of the country. Because in our land there are numerous hot springs. And do you know that the Lojbandian mountains are a dead volcano? And our industry uses the steam that comes-from the ground. And the geothermal energy is-very-much used. In-fact ago several hundred years, even, all Loglandian houses were supplied-with hot water.
APL: 970120:Here, yes. Lo dralu = Mr Dragon

guimra : gunti-marka : B is national emblem of country F
derhatnerji : dertu-hatro-nerji : B is geothermal energy